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汉译英翻译中的常见错误分析

基础部 张亚文

  由于中英文语法的差异,同学们在翻译过程中经常出现一些问题,现将同学们常见问题摘录出来做以简要分析:

  一、一般现在时中动词第三人称单数问题。

  例1:中国拥有丰富的自然资源。

  误译:China have abundant natural resources.

  正译:China has abundant natural resources.

  例2:历史证明,和平来之不易,世界大战的悲剧绝不能重演。

  误译:History prove that peace don’t come easily, the tragedy of a world war should never repeat.

  正译:History proves that peace doesn’t come easily, the tragedy of a world war should never be repeated.

  二、句子中的谓语问题。一个句子中不能出现两个谓语,也不能遗漏谓语。

  例1:清华大学有超过5000名留学生学习中国文化。

  误译:Qinghua University have more than 5000 foreign students learn Chinese culture.

  正译:There are more than 5000 foreign students learning Chinese culture in Qinghua University.

  例2:有很多原因导致了这个现象。

  误译:There are some reasons result in this phenomenon.

  正译:There are some reasons resulting in this phenomenon.

  三、数的概念的混乱。汉语中复数没有明确的体现,中国学生常常在用复数时译成单数,在英译时,应根据汉语上下文在翻译时应补上复数概念。

  例如:世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演化史。

  误译:The first generation museum in the world is museum of natural history, which introduces the evolution of the Earth and various lives by means of fossil and specimen.

  正译:The first generation museums in the world are museums of natural history, which introduce the evolution of the Earth and various lives by means of fossils and specimens.

  四、不能用逗号连接两个句子。

  例:中国稳定和谐的政治社会环境、丰富优秀的劳动力资源和潜力巨大的消费市场,为与世界各国尤其是欧亚地区国家开展互惠互利的经济合作提供了理想的场所。

  误译:China has a stable and harmonious political and social environment, rich and excellent human resources and great potential consumer market, it is an ideal place for mutually beneficial economic cooperation among countries in Eurasia region and every country in the world.(该句翻译前后各为一个完整的句子,中间不能用逗号连接。)

  正译:China, with a stable and harmonious political and social environment, rich and excellent human resources and great potential consumer market, is an ideal place for mutually beneficial economic cooperation among countries in Eurasia region and every country in the world.

  在第二句翻译处理中将“China”作为主语,其后的插入的“with…”介词短语作为句子的状语,整句的谓语动词在插入语之后,全句只出现一个谓语动词。

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